Stakeholders are any individuals or organizations who have some interest in a problem, program, policy, or other type of effort. Some examples:
For a nonprofit or NGO or a program, some stakeholders might be the people affected by the focal problem, the people who provide funding, staff who work for the organization, local politicians who have an interest in reducing the problem, the members of the organization's Board of Directors, and the local community in general. Each has some reason to be interested in the problem and its solution. The people who are affected by the problem would like to see it lessened so they are no longer affected. The people who provide the funding would like to see that the money they are contributing is making a difference. Staff who work for the organization want to feel that what they are doing matters. Local politicians want to take credit for making things better in their communities so they can be re-elected. Members of the Board of Directors want to see that the organization they are governing is effective. The local community all benefits from alleviation of any social problem.
When addressing a problem - either through programs, policies, or evaluation - it is important to understand all people or organizations who have some interest in it, and then find out what their perspective is. You can most easily engage them if you approach them from their own perspective.
I hope this is helpful.
The Community Tool Box Advisor